CILICIA: Philopator, circa 20 BC-17 AD., AE chalkous (1.82g), RPC I Suppl. 3, 3872B. Ziegler-, 15mm, likely struck in Hierapolis: bull butting right // Aphlaston below, uncertain monogram, reverse somewhat rough, attractive patina, F-VF, RR. There has been some dispute over the identity of this 'King Philopator.' Cassius Dio reports that Augustus refused to acknowledge a Philopator as King of Cilicia in 31/30 BC because his father, Tarkondimotos I, who had died in the battle of Actium, had fought on Antony's side (Cass. Dio 51.2.2). It is unclear whether this Philopator, the one who Augustus appointed king of parts of Cilicia in 20 BC and the Tarkondimotos Philopator mentioned in an inscription from Antiochia in Pisidia are one and the same, or differing members of the Tarkondimotid Dynasty. It is obvious, however, that the types of this coin refer to the victory of Augustus at Actium and are a pledge of loyalty to the winner of the war. The issue could have been struck by Philopator right after the battle in hope of his recognition by Augustus as the successor of his father's throne, but it is more plausible that it was struck after his (re)appointment as King in 20 BC.